Are Non-Compete Agreements Enforceable In California?

Are Non-Compete Agreements Enforceable In California?

Non-Compete Agreements in California: Enforceability and Limitations

Non-compete agreements, also known as restrictive covenants or covenants not to compete, are contractual clauses used to restrict individuals, typically employees, from engaging in certain competitive activities after the termination of employment. These agreements aim to protect employers’ interests, trade secrets, and client relationships. However, non-compete agreements have long been a subject of controversy, and their enforceability varies widely from state to state. In this article, we will explore the enforceability and limitations of non-compete agreements in California within the context of real estate law.

Understanding Non-Compete Agreements:

Non-compete agreements typically prohibit employees from working for or starting a competing business within a certain geographical area and for a specific duration after leaving their current employment. The primary goal of these agreements is to prevent employees from taking valuable knowledge, trade secrets, and customer relationships to a competitor.

California’s Approach to Non-Compete Agreements:

California has a unique approach to non-compete agreements compared to many other states in the United States. Section 16600 of the California Business and Professions Code explicitly declares that contracts restraining individuals from engaging in lawful professions, trades, or businesses are void and unenforceable.

1. Rule of Reasonableness:

In California, the rule of reasonableness governs non-compete agreements. This means that any non-compete agreement, regardless of its duration or geographical scope, is generally considered unenforceable unless it falls within certain narrow exceptions allowed by law.

2. Statutory Exceptions:

While California disfavors non-compete agreements, there are some statutory exceptions where non-compete clauses are enforceable:

a. Sale of Business:

In the context of selling a business, non-compete agreements may be enforceable if they are part of the sale or purchase agreement. The restriction must be limited to a reasonable time and geographical area necessary to protect the buyer’s interests in the acquired business.

b. Dissolution of Partnership or Limited Liability Company (LLC):

Non-compete agreements can be enforced when partners or members of an LLC agree not to compete with the partnership or LLC after the dissolution of their business relationship.

c. Protection of Trade Secrets:

California’s Uniform Trade Secrets Act (CUTSA) allows for the enforcement of non-compete agreements to protect trade secrets, proprietary information, and confidential business information. However, these agreements must be narrowly tailored to protect the specific trade secrets and not impose unreasonable restrictions on the employee’s future employment opportunities.

d. Injunction Relief for Misappropriation of Trade Secrets:

Courts may grant injunctive relief to prevent former employees from using or disclosing trade secrets or confidential information belonging to their former employers.

3. Employee Mobility and Innovation:

California places a high value on employee mobility and innovation. The state’s economy thrives on the free movement of skilled workers and entrepreneurs, contributing to the growth of various industries, including real estate.

4. Public Policy Considerations:

The California courts have consistently held that non-compete agreements are against public policy because they restrict individuals’ right to pursue their chosen profession or occupation freely.

5. Blue-Pencil Rule:

Unlike some states that may “blue-pencil” or modify overly broad non-compete agreements to make them enforceable, California follows the strict “all-or-nothing” approach. If a non-compete agreement is found to be unenforceable, the entire agreement is deemed void, and the employer cannot enforce any portion of it.

6. Choice of Law and Forum Selection Clauses:

Employers based outside California may include choice of law and forum selection clauses in their employment contracts, attempting to subject the agreement to the laws of another state that may be more favorable to non-compete enforcement. However, California courts may still refuse to enforce these provisions if they violate the fundamental public policy of California.


In summary, non-compete agreements are generally unenforceable in California, except in specific situations such as the sale of a business, dissolution of a partnership or LLC, and protection of trade secrets. California courts prioritize employee mobility and innovation, valuing the free movement of skilled workers and entrepreneurs. Employers operating in California should carefully consider the enforceability of non-compete agreements and consult with experienced employment law attorneys to ensure compliance with California’s stringent laws and regulations.

As a real estate professional, it is crucial to understand the legal landscape surrounding non-compete agreements to protect your rights and opportunities in the competitive real estate market of California. Always seek professional legal advice when dealing with employment contracts or any other legal matters in your real estate career.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is for general informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. The enforceability of non-compete agreements in California may vary depending on the specific circumstances and the applicable laws. Individuals seeking guidance on non-compete agreements or any legal matters should consult with qualified legal counsel for advice tailored to their situation.

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