Are There Any Exceptions To The General Rule Against Non-Compete Agreements In California?

Are There Any Exceptions To The General Rule Against Non-Compete Agreements In California?

Navigating Non-Compete Agreements in California: Exceptions to the General Rule

In the state of California, non-compete agreements are generally disfavored and subject to strict regulation. The California Business and Professions Code Section 16600 establishes a strong public policy against such agreements, stating that “every contract by which anyone is restrained from engaging in a lawful profession, trade, or business of any kind is to that extent void.” This general rule aims to promote competition, innovation, and employee mobility in the workforce. However, there are exceptions to this rule, and certain circumstances allow for the enforceability of non-compete agreements in California. In this article, we will explore these exceptions and the situations in which non-compete agreements may be upheld.

1. Sale of a Business:

One significant exception to the general rule against non-compete agreements in California is when a business is sold or purchased. In the context of the sale of a business, a non-compete clause can be enforceable to protect the goodwill and value of the business for the buyer. This is commonly known as a “sale of business” exception.

In such cases, the seller may agree not to compete with the buyer within a specified geographical area and for a limited duration. However, the restriction must be reasonable in scope and necessary to protect the buyer’s legitimate interests in the business.

2. Protection of Trade Secrets:

Another exception to the general rule applies when a non-compete agreement is used to protect trade secrets. While California strongly disfavors broad non-compete agreements, it does recognize the importance of safeguarding trade secrets and confidential information.

A trade secret is information that derives economic value from not being generally known or readily ascertainable by others who could obtain economic value from its disclosure or use. Non-compete agreements that are limited to protecting trade secrets and confidential information may be upheld, provided they are reasonable in scope, duration, and geographical reach.

3. Inventions or Patent Assignments:

In certain situations, employees or contractors may create inventions or developments that are owned by the employer. In such cases, the employer may require the employee or contractor to sign a non-compete agreement or a confidentiality agreement as part of the invention or patent assignment process. This is particularly common in industries where intellectual property is a significant asset.

4. Partnerships and Dissolution Agreements:

In the context of partnerships, non-compete agreements may be enforceable if they are necessary to protect the goodwill and interests of the partnership. For example, when a partner leaves a partnership, a dissolution agreement may include a non-compete clause to prevent the departing partner from directly competing with the partnership.

Again, the enforceability of such agreements is contingent on their reasonableness and necessity in protecting the legitimate interests of the partnership.

5. Protection of Customer Relationships:

Although broad non-compete agreements to protect customer relationships are generally unenforceable in California, non-solicitation agreements may be upheld. A non-solicitation agreement restricts a departing employee from soliciting the employer’s customers or clients after their departure.

The key distinction is that non-solicitation agreements are narrower in scope and only focus on protecting the existing customer base from direct poaching by the departing employee.

6. Trade Schools and Educational Institutions:

Non-compete agreements are allowed in certain limited situations involving trade schools or educational institutions. These agreements are typically used to protect the investment made by the educational institution in training or educating the employee or student.

However, even in this context, the enforceability of non-compete agreements is subject to strict scrutiny, and the agreements must be reasonable and narrowly tailored to protect the institution’s interests.

7. Injunctions in Trade Secret Misappropriation Cases:

In cases of trade secret misappropriation or theft, a court may issue an injunction to prevent the offending party from using or disclosing the trade secret. This injunction may effectively function as a non-compete agreement for the duration of the case.

Factors Affecting Enforceability:

For any of the exceptions mentioned above, the enforceability of non-compete agreements in California depends on several factors:

Reasonableness: Non-compete agreements must be reasonable in scope, duration, and geographic reach. Courts will assess whether the restriction is necessary to protect the legitimate interests of the employer without imposing undue hardship on the employee.

Impact on Public Policy: Courts will consider the impact of the non-compete agreement on public policy. If the restriction is deemed to unreasonably hinder competition, innovation, or employee mobility, it may be deemed unenforceable.

Industry-Specific Considerations: Different industries may have unique considerations when it comes to non-compete agreements. Courts may take into account industry norms, practices, and the nature of the employer’s business.

Protecting Legitimate Business Interests: Non-compete agreements must be tailored to protect legitimate business interests, such as trade secrets, confidential information, and customer relationships.

Employee’s Interests: Courts will consider the impact of the non-compete agreement on the employee’s ability to find work in their field or industry.


While California generally disfavors non-compete agreements, there are exceptions to the general rule under certain circumstances. Non-compete agreements may be enforceable in the context of the sale of a business, protection of trade secrets, inventions or patent assignments, partnerships and dissolution agreements, trade schools and educational institutions, and in cases of trade secret misappropriation.

However, even in these situations, the enforceability of non-compete agreements is subject to strict scrutiny. Courts will carefully assess whether the restriction is reasonable, necessary to protect legitimate business interests, and does not unreasonably hinder competition or employee mobility.

For businesses in California considering the use of non-compete agreements, it is essential to seek legal counsel from experienced real estate attorneys who can navigate the complexities of the law and help craft enforceable agreements that align with the state’s legal requirements.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is for general informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. The enforceability of non-compete agreements in California may vary based on specific circumstances and jurisdictional considerations. Businesses should consult with qualified legal counsel to understand the legal implications of non-compete agreements and their applicability to their particular business needs.

Whether you’re a property owner, investor, or business owner, Real Estate Law Corporation™ is your trusted partner on the path to legal success. Contact us today to embark on a journey of exceptional legal support. Our team of seasoned attorneys brings decades of experience to every case, demonstrating a profound understanding of real estate law, transactions, litigation, business intricacies, and estate planning. With a proven record of success, our portfolio is adorned with numerous landmark cases that stand as a testament to our dedication, expertise, and commitment to achieving favorable outcomes for our clients.