Can I Mediate Or Arbitrate A Dispute Even If There Is No Written Agreement?

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Can I Mediate Or Arbitrate A Dispute Even If There Is No Written Agreement?

Real Estate Law: Can I Mediate or Arbitrate a Dispute Even If There Is No Written Agreement?

In the realm of real estate transactions, disputes can arise between buyers, sellers, landlords, tenants, contractors, and other parties involved in property matters. To resolve these conflicts efficiently and cost-effectively, many parties turn to alternative dispute resolution (ADR) methods such as mediation and arbitration. One common question that arises is whether parties can mediate or arbitrate a dispute even if there is no written agreement explicitly requiring them to do so. In this article, we will explore the potential for mediating and arbitrating disputes without a written agreement, the advantages of voluntary ADR, and the implications for parties involved in real estate disputes.

1. Voluntary Nature of Mediation and Arbitration:

Voluntary Participation in ADR:

Mediation and arbitration are generally voluntary processes, meaning that all parties involved must willingly agree to participate. Unlike court litigation, which may be mandated by law, parties cannot be compelled to engage in mediation or arbitration without their consent.


In mediation, parties come together with a neutral third party, the mediator, to discuss the issues in dispute and work toward a mutually agreeable resolution. The mediator’s role is to facilitate communication and help the parties explore potential solutions. Mediation allows parties to maintain control over the outcome and provides a non-adversarial environment for resolving conflicts.


Arbitration involves a neutral third party, the arbitrator, who hears the evidence and arguments presented by the parties and issues a binding decision on the dispute. While arbitration is more formal than mediation, it still allows parties to avoid the traditional court system and benefit from a quicker resolution.

2. Can Parties Mediate or Arbitrate Without a Written Agreement?

Written Agreements and ADR:

While written agreements, such as contracts or clauses, commonly include provisions for mediation or arbitration, parties can still choose to mediate or arbitrate a dispute without a prior written agreement.

Voluntary Agreement to Mediate:

In mediation, parties can voluntarily agree to participate in the process even if there is no written agreement mandating it. This agreement can be reached through informal discussions, letters, or verbal exchanges. Parties may opt for mediation when they believe it can help them find a collaborative resolution to their dispute.

Voluntary Agreement to Arbitrate:

Similarly, parties can voluntarily agree to submit their dispute to arbitration, even if there is no pre-existing written agreement. This agreement can be documented in writing or be established through verbal consent.

3. Advantages of Voluntary ADR Without a Written Agreement:


Voluntary ADR without a written agreement can be a cost-effective alternative to litigation. The parties can save on court fees, legal expenses, and the time associated with formal court proceedings.

Speedy Resolution:

Mediation and arbitration generally offer quicker resolutions than traditional court litigation. By voluntarily choosing ADR, parties can avoid lengthy court backlogs and expedite the resolution process.


Voluntary ADR allows parties to maintain confidentiality during the process. Unlike court proceedings, which are typically matters of public record, mediation and arbitration keep the details of the dispute private.

Preserving Relationships:

In real estate matters, parties may wish to maintain business or personal relationships despite the disagreement. Voluntary ADR fosters open communication and cooperation, which can help preserve relationships that may otherwise be damaged by adversarial litigation.

Control Over the Outcome:

Mediation allows parties to have direct input into the outcome, as they work collaboratively with the mediator to craft a resolution that meets both parties’ interests. In arbitration, parties have some control over the selection of the arbitrator, which can influence the decision-maker’s expertise and understanding of the real estate industry.

4. Implications and Limitations:

Potential for Non-Cooperation:

Since ADR without a written agreement is voluntary, there is a possibility that one party may refuse to participate. If parties cannot agree on the dispute resolution method, one party may resort to filing a lawsuit in court.

No Binding Decision in Mediation:

In mediation, the mediator does not have the authority to issue a binding decision. Instead, the mediator’s role is to facilitate communication and assist the parties in finding a mutually agreeable resolution. If the parties cannot reach a resolution through mediation, they may need to explore other options, such as arbitration or litigation.

Binding Decision in Arbitration:

In arbitration, the arbitrator issues a binding decision that is enforceable in court. If parties agree to arbitrate without a written agreement, they must be aware that the arbitrator’s decision will be final and legally binding, with limited avenues for appeal.

Choice of Forum and Rules:

Without a written agreement, parties may need to negotiate the forum and procedural rules for mediation or arbitration. This negotiation may include determining the location of the ADR process, the selection of the mediator or arbitrator, and the rules that will govern the proceedings.

5. Conclusion:

While written agreements often include provisions for mediation and arbitration in real estate disputes, parties can voluntarily choose these ADR methods even without a pre-existing agreement. Voluntary ADR offers numerous advantages, including cost-effectiveness, confidentiality, speed, and the opportunity to preserve relationships. However, parties should be aware that ADR without a written agreement is dependent on the voluntary cooperation of all parties involved.

When considering mediation or arbitration without a written agreement, parties should seek legal counsel to ensure they understand the implications, potential limitations, and the best approach for resolving their real estate dispute. Mediation and arbitration can be valuable tools for reaching mutually acceptable solutions, but they require willing participation and open communication from all parties involved.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this article is for general informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. Parties involved in real estate disputes should seek legal counsel for advice specific to their circumstances and the relevant laws governing alternative dispute resolution.

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